Prepare and submit a paper on a systems view of man-general systems theory. A Systems View of Man-General Systems Theory General Systems Theory The General Systems theory was developed by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in 1950. A system in this case refers to a set of interacting or interdependent entities forming an integrated whole. A system is also “an organized complex whose parts are interrelated regardless of what type of parts they are and how they are interrelated” (Bertalanffy, 1981 p. 2). A system can be closed or open. A closed system is whereby the end result is determined by the initial conditions and does not connect with the environment for information. For example, in a chemical reaction the final concentration is dependent on the concentration of the initial ingredients. An open system on the other hand, is whereby the end can be achieved through various means thus does not depend on initial elements. Information from the environment is incorporated and is essential in shaping the final output. Human beings in this case are viewed as open systems and are organisms (p.8). The systems theory is based on various assumptions. One of the core assumptions of Bertalanffy is that a system should be understood as a whole. in other words, a system is greater than the sum of its parts. Contrary to other theorists who analyze the world from its parts and relating them to the whole, his theory is not reducible in nature. That is, it depends on interactions of the parts of the system but cannot be broken down into distinct parts. He asserts that all properties of a given system cannot be explained by the sum of its component parts, rather the system as a whole determines how the parts function (p. 5). The system thus gives roles to the subsystem of family or society. This is a concept he referred as holism. The human mind according to this theory is assumed to be “an integrated pattern of processes that represent dynamics of human self-organization” (p. 11). The mind or mental processes determine how living beings function thus it is a very important property of the living systems. Another core assumption of this theory is that organisms or living system is not passive but active. There is a tendency to believe that living beings or humans always respond to stimulus in the environment but do not generate own drive thus emphasis on stimulus-response reactions. However, as Bertalanffy puts it living organisms can advance towards higher order and organization because they are active (9). They have inner drive or motivation that stimulates them towards a desired goal rather than waiting for a stimulus in the environment for energy. Human beings unlike animals therefore, are able to decide their paths or plan ahead using their mind. They relate to their environment by acquiring useful needed to achieve higher goals or to adapt to the dynamic environment. The principle of equifinality is also crucial to the systems theory as it helps to distinguish between closed and open systems. As stated earlier, in a closed system the process is irreversible and the final state is determined by initial conditions. Any alterations in the process change the final outcome completely hence it vanishes or dies. In open systems the final result may be achieved through different ways and by varied initial conditions. The system in this case keeps evolving and properties keep emerging through interaction with the environment. The system is thus self-organizing and openness accounts for stability and change in the system (p 18). According to Bertalanffy, living systems maintain themselves in a steady state and are capable of developing towards states of increased order and organization. This accounts for evolution from primitive states to civilized individuals or from childhood to adulthood. Different people can experience different childhoods but end up being in the same state in life. The theory also assumes that there exists a symbolic universe in which man lives (Bertalanffy, 2). Man is thus involved in creating symbols which dominate his life and differentiate him from other organisms such as animals. Values possessed by man are symbolic functions and guide his life. As such human beings are able to consciously plan whatever they want to do. They can also anticipate the future, have a conscience and can discern what is right or wrong. Most of all they have an idea of acceptable values and morality. Symbolic functions are therefore an integral part of the open systems theory. The theory is crucial as it helps to explain psychological behaviors which are deviations from the norm. It also helps us to understand human behavior based on a persons development. According to this theory, mental disturbances are a result of disturbances of symbolic functions and the experiences in early childhood have an impact in later stages of life such as adulthood (p. 7). It also helps to understand the value system of human beings as it impacts on the whole system. The theory is also a good model for viewing the interaction between man and his environment. However, it has been criticized for various reasons. It divides individuals into hierarchies with existence of dominant groups especially in the family system. It is also criticized for assuming that all parts of the system have equal power. It may also not generate much explanatory power. The theory is very useful in clinical psychology to explain human behaviors hence know the right cure or how to deal with the patient. Since most human problems such as psycho-pathology, and depression are linked to dysfunction of the organism’s system it is easier to deal with. The physician should seek to understand the history of the patient to understand the experiences such a person has gone through since early childhood. The stages of development can also help to explain what resulted into the dysfunction. it can be a result of delay in mental development. Analyzing the factors in the environment is crucial as they affect development. Reference Von Bertalanffy, L (1981) A Systems View of Man: Collected Essays, edited by Paul A. Laviolette. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
Why Choose Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
Customer Support 24/7
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission and Business Papers
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Editing and Proofreading
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.