Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Organ black market. People have to stay on waiting lists for years before they may ultimately get an organ that can replace their organ which does not function normally. During this period, patients even end up losing their lives as a result of organ failure. Transplantation of organs is very essential for certain individuals, selling organs on the black market is unethical as the act is against the foundations of organ donation, increases the expenditure of the donor and increases cost for the society. Body Presumed Consent Donation of organ is the act of giving a gift or voluntarily donating an organ to another person. When organ transplantation started taking place, the consent of the donor and his family was given great importance and without their consent organ donation and transplantation could not take place. Due to this, there was a shortage of organs available in the market and nations started applying presumed consent system. Presumed consent refers to one’s belief that a person or his family members have no objection regarding transplantation of organs of a dead individual. Presumed consent may not take place if the family members stop or disallow the transplantation procedure (Devettere 401). Due to presumed consent, ample numbers of patients who need organ donations have started gaining access to organs but the number is still quite low due to the existence of black markets. Because of the existence of black markets, presumed consent can not be practiced in an efficient manner as people prefer selling their organs in the black market rather donating it and this is a common practice in developing nations. Regulating Markets and Black Markets The huge amount of difference between the demand for organs and supply of organs has resulted in an increase in black markets for organs. The demand for organs is much higher than the supply throughout the world. this has made policy makers take measures to counter the difference between the demand and supply. This has led nations such as Singapore to reimburse and provide incentives to donors in order to encourage them to donate their organs (Cooper 15). Nations such as Singapore are even investing heavily in the procedure of donation and this is a very high cost to the donor in financial terms. The government and policy makers have taken steps such as paying for the transplant procedure and expenses that are bared by donors after the procedure has taken place. A major challenge recognized for the activities conducted by nations is the challenge known as transplant commercialism. Transplant commercialism is referred to the treatment of organs as a commodity which results in the buying and selling of organs and which increases the act of organ trafficking (Danovitch 443). Transplant commercialism is recognized as an unethical act because it shakes the very foundations of organ donation. Policy makers have realized that the nations that are providing incentives for organ donation are conducting an unethical act of reimbursing donors in return for their organs. On the other hand, policy makers do not restrict reimbursements. This will not leave the donor with a financial reward and will neither result in a disadvantage to him. According to the utilitarian view of ethics, all activities that are considered ethical must provide the optimum level of benefit to the society.
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