Human Genome

Write an article on Human Genome. It needs to be at least 1500 words. A gene is one DNA molecule segment corresponding to the coding for one complete protein. 23 different types of DNA molecules or chromosomes constitute the entire human genome. Put another way, the genome of a species is the total set of chromosomes that are constituted to make up that species, and the human genome is the set of chromosomes that together define the human species. Genomics, in turn, is the investigation into the human genome and the definition of genomes in general in terms of being able to totally describe the genomic makeup of species and how the genomic characteristics translate into species characteristics such as physiology and the vulnerability of particular members of the species to certain conditions and diseases (Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering 2014. Little et al. 2003. Nature Education 2013). Genetics meanwhile, in general, refers to the scientific investigation into differences in genes that have been inherited from parents to offspring, and human genetics is this study directed towards the human species (National Center for Biotechnology Information 2007. Saha 1998. New York State 2011. The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium 2012. Jha 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013. Wadhwa 2014).Genetic variation is simply the variation in the genetic makeup among human beings. Variations are said to be small in relation to the total genome for all humanity, with variations between any two random human beings just accounting for 01. percent of their total base pairs. Among populations too, genetic variation is very small and below that which would classify peoples of different races as subspecies, indicating that the global population is just a single continuous genetic pool that interbreeds through time. On the other hand, a small portion of genetic&nbsp.variations among human beings is significant, in that they either confer advantages to people versus their environments or else that they predispose some people to different kinds of diseases. Genetic variation is advantageous for instance for people who because of a genetic variation allow them to withstand malaria plagues in an environment, and make some people better able to resist infection with the AIDS virus. Recent studies for instance also associate historical resistance to the plague-causing bacterium to a gene mutation that at present also seems to shield people with the genetic variation from the ravages of&nbsp. AIDS and its complications. Early medical and academic literature on this have pointed out that there are single-gene variations that are causally linked to the development of certain diseases in human beings, among them cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disorder, as well as Huntington’s. On the other hand, as research progresses, the genetic variation bases of a range of other chronic and intractable modern diseases, from psychological diseases such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, are being established.&nbsp. Meanwhile, as the research also moves forward, it is increasingly clear that a host of other diseases have not just one basis in genetic variation nor in just one set of environmental conditions, but there are various genetic variations teamed up with various environmental constraints that together can give rise to disease.

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