Explain the terminology used in construction technology Types of construction activity: Low, medium and high-rise buildings, domestic buildings, for example house, flats and other multi- occupancy buildings, commercial buildings, for example offices and shops, industrial buildings, for example, light industrial and warehouses. Construction technology terminology: Loadbearing and non-loadbearing, structural stability, movement and thermal expansion, durability, weather and moisture resistance, aesthetics, fire resistance, sound insulation, resistance to heat loss and thermal transmission, dimensional co-ordination and standardisation, sustainability and scarcity of availability, on-site and off-site construction, legal requirements, buildability, health & safety. Construction information: Drawings, specification, schedules, CAD, Building Information Modelling (BIM). Sustainability: Supply chain Lifecycle ‘Cradle-to-grave’ ‘Cradle-to-cradle’ Circular economies. LO2 Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria Pre-design studies: Desk-top, Site Reconnaissance, Direct Soil Investigation techniques. Substructure functions and design considerations: Different methods for gathering disturbed and undisturbed samples, influence of soil type on foundation design, including water and chemical content, potential loads, position of trees and the impact on foundations, economic considerations, legal considerations (health & safety work in excavations), building regulations, plant requirements. Types of foundations: Shallow and deep foundations, strip and deep strip foundations, pad foundations, raft foundations, piled foundations (replacement and displacement piles). Page 4 Types of superstructure: Traditional construction, framed construction: steel, composite concrete and steel, timber. Walls; roofs; structural frames; claddings; finishes; services. Walls: External walls: traditional cavity, timber frame, lightweight steel. Cladding: panel systems, infill systems, composite panel systems, internal partition walls. Roofs: Pitched and flat roof systems, roof coverings. Floors: Ground floors, intermediate floors, floor finishes. Staircases: Timber, concrete, metal staircases, means of escape. Finishes: Ceiling, wall and floor finishes. LO3 Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of buildings Site remediation and de-watering: Contamination management: cut-off techniques, encapsulation. Soil remediation: stone piling, vibro- compaction. De-watering: permanent sheet piling, secant piling, grout injection freezing, temporary techniques, such as pumping, wells, electro-osmosis. Substructure works: Basement construction: steel sheet piling, concrete diaphragm walls, coffer dams, caissons, culverts. Superstructure works: Reinforced concrete work: formwork, reinforcement, fabrication, concrete, steel. LO4 Illustrate the supply and distribution of a range of building services and how they are accommodated within the building Primary service supply Cold water Gas Electricity. Services distribution Hot and cold water Single-phase and 3-phase electricity Air conditioning ductwork. Page 5
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