1- The progressive era did not apply to African Americans. During the beginning of the 19th century (Stern & Axinn (2018) state that “Progressivism—especially in the South—was tied to efforts to restrict the rights of African Americans.” During this time a system to suppress and divide African Americans and white Americans was created with the Jim Crow Laws. According to (Stern & Axinn (2018) ” The black population was generally unaffected by reform activities and the social welfare benefits that resulted from them. In an era marked by economic progress and social mobility, this group remained poor and powerless.” Segregation resulted in many social inequalities in American and officially lasted until the Civil Rights Era. While minorities and women and children gained rights in the workplace, African Americans continued being systematically oppressed. In present day America, African Americans are systematically oppressed by the countries criminal justice system. The criminal justice works against African Americans and in favor of white americans. According to (Nellis (2018),” African Americans are more likely than white Americans to be arrested; once arrested, they are more likely to be convicted; and once convicted, and they are more likely to experience lengthy prison sentences, African-American adults are 5.9 times as likely to be incarcerated than whites and Hispanics are 3.1 times as likely.” This statistic and other present forms of oppression exist as well. The use of excessive force by police against African Americans is also a problem that has resulted in much controversy. The police has been able to get away with multiple murders because the justice system works to oppress African Americans. Respond to at least two of your peers and respectfully challenge or support their findings. Comment on findings that differ from your own. COLLAPSE 2-During the early 20th century African Americans were still heavily discriminated against. Even though slavery had ended they were still kept away from whites, and not included in many government related decisions. Southern states passed the “Jim Crow Laws,” that segregated schools, excluded African American adults from voting, and provided the elites with more power over their black workers (Stern & Axinn, 2018, p. 119). In Northern cities African American’s experienced residential segregation. “White residents and landlords conspired to push most black residents into small, overcrowded enclaves (Stern and Axinn, 2018, p.120).” However, the black population there was continuing to rise so even they had to be pushed out of their own neighborhoods. Even when people were attempting to help the blacks it was out of a segregation standing. They would fund services for the black communities so they would not have to bother the white communities in their settlement houses or other charity organizations (Lundahl & Hull, 2018). In today’s society residential segregation is illegal but still tends to happen. Many African American families may not feel comfortable living in a predominantly white neighborhood, or the white neighborhood does not make them feel welcome. Residential segregation affects African American families in that they do not have access to the same resources (economic, medical, etc.). This racial segregation is one of the main factors behind the major gaps in socioeconomic statuses between these two groups (Williams & Collins, 2001). Having a low SES status is what also creates the disparities in access to good healthcare for this group. Most of the time they do not have access to proper doctors or medical professionals to get the help they need.COLLAPSE
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