The Decline in American Literacy

The Decline in American LiteracyAcording to Cohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-237), the available evidence suggests that the academic achievement of students in school and colleges registered a gradual improvement between 1900 and the mid-1950’s, an accelerated improvement between the mid-1950’s and the mid-1960’s, and a precipitous, widespread decline between then and the late 1970’s, before stabilizing in the early 1980’s.””No one can say with assurance which social or educational condition was primarily responsible for the decline in student abilities that apparently began in the mid-1960’s and accelerated throughout the 1970’s before leveling off.” (Cohen, Brawer, Kisker, 2014, p-238).Following the narrative, above, the authors suggest at least six (6) causal events, with an additional seventh current causal factor.REQUIRED:CAUSAL EVENTS1. List these six or seven (6-7) causal events.IMPACT ON LITERACY2. Present your opinion on how each of these six or seven (6-7) events might impact student literacy.RELATED FACTORS3. Describe the relationship between family income and literacy.AUTHORS SUGGESTION4. What do the authors suggested about the relationship between family income & literacy?YOUR OPINION5. What is your  view on the suggested relationship between family income & literacy?———————————————————————TRANSFER COURSESThe most pervasive and long-lived issue in community colleges is the extent to which their courses are accepted by the universities (Cohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-267).REQUIRED:Read the section on “Transfer Courses” (p-267-272).After reading that section summarize and discuss what makes a community college course “transferable” by answering the following question:How do community college courses become “transfer courses?”INTEGRATIVE EDUCATION-AAccording to Cohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-292) the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges in California drafted a set of “comprehensive objectives for general education.”REQUIRED: PART-AWhat are these three (3) comprehensive objectives?What is included in each of the three (3) comprehensive objectivesINTEGRATIVE EDUCATION-BCohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-293) suggest that the superficial appeal of these comprehensive objectives that attempt to define general education as that which everyone should know, have never been easy to codify due to three (3) contentions antagonistic to integrative or general educationREQUIRED: PART-BDescribe these three (3) contentions based on information provided in the text.INTEGRATIVE EDUCATION-CCohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-294) state that job preparation dominates the agendas of philanthropic groups.This has resulted in transfer pathways to universities that is a significant policy effort in many states, especially California.DIRECTIONS:1-Navigate to the following link: first paragraph states:Welcome to, the website for the Course Identification Numbering System (C-ID). C-ID is a supranumbering system being developed to ease the transfer and articulation burdens in California’s higher educational institutions. To learn more about C-ID, please visit our ABOUTpage. To access FAQs for faculty and articulation officers, please click here.3-Click on the ABOUTpage link on that page.4-Read the first four (4) paragraphs.REQUIRED: PART-CProvide a one or two sentence summary for each of the first four (4) paragraphs that describe the C-ID as presented on the web page.INTEGRATIVE EDUCATION – DDIRECTIONS:1-Navigate back to the C-ID homepage2-In the blue verticle box on the right-hand side, halfway down, find the following:TMCThirty fourTransfer Model Curricula(TMCs) are now available for use or *consideration:3-Click on the Transfer Model Curricula(TMCs) link on that page4-Read the top paragraph under the heading – Transfer Model CurriculumInformation.REQUIRED: PART-D1. Provide a short summary of what the TMC  is ( In response to Senate Bill 1440 (Padilla, 2010) ) and how it will assure students and faculty.2. What does the acronym AS-T identify?3. What does the acronym AA-T identify?————————————————————–VOCATIONAL STUDENT TRACKINGThe idea of occupational education reflects a belief that separate curricular tracks are the best way to accommodate the varying educational objectives and characteristics of the students. However, Palmer (1987a) suggested that the organization of career education as a separate curricular track stems from several viewpoints other than student intentions.  (Cohen, Brawer, and Kisker, 2014, p-319, italics added.)REQUIRED PART-A:Describe the four (4) viewpoints as suggested by Palmer (1987a), from which the organization of career education as a separate curricular track stems, other than student intentions?”…an oversimplified view of occupational education as a track leading away from the baccalaureate (degree) givesground to several errors.”  (Cohen, Brawer, and Kisker, 2014, p-321, italics & underline added.)REQUIRED PART-B:Describe the five (5) errors presented in the text book that arise from the above stated oversimplified view of occupational education as a track leading away from the baccalaureate (degree).VOCATIONAL STUDENT TRACKINGCohen, Brawer, and Kisker (2014, p-320/321) state that Palmer rejected the charge that community college students are counseled (tracked) into career programs on the basis of 1)-their (low) academic ability, and 2)-hence their (low) socioeconomic status.Based on the results of the 1986 survey by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Palmer in his analysis (1987, p-305) suggested three (3) implications.REQUIRED:1-Discuss [one or two sentences each] the three (3) implications suggested by Palmer based on his analysis of enrollment patterns.2-Then provide your analysis of Palmers final quote, which is the fourth implication.INTEGRATIVE EDUCATIONCohen, Brawer & Kisker (2014, p-294-309) suggest that courses and activities now exist that can be brought together as a rigorous, modern program to teach what the proponents of general education have sought for generations:a-critical thinking,b-service learning,c-civic engagement, andd-sustainable development.REQUIRED:a. What is critical thinking, i.e., how is it applied?b. How is service learning like civic engagement?c. What are some “sustainable development” activities and courses that you would recommend?Case #3 – The Case of the Intoxicated StudentYou have been teaching for a several semesters. You are feeling very comfortable in your classes. The students have given you very good Student-Teacher Evaluations. The Division Chair has expressed very positive comments about your teaching and your participation on several college committees.On Wednesday you finish up your class that ends at noon. You usually go to lunch right after class. You put your books away and you are on your way to the cafeteria. You stop in at the lavatory to wash up. When you enter the rest room you notice there are several students standing around the rear stall, talking about something.One of the students approaches you and mumbles something about needing your help. You are not exactly sure what the student just said and you finish washing your hands. As you take a few steps to the back of the rest room, several of the students motion towards the back of the large stall set up for handicapped access. As you enter the stall you see a person passed out on the seat.The student is fully clothed but slumped in a position that puts their head against the wall with their chin on their chest, arms dropped down at their side. There are several liquor bottles on the floor and a backpack with several bottles inside. The neck on one of the bottles appears broken as if it had been dropped but the contents were not spilled.REQUIRED:1. What are the concerns that you have at this point?2. What immediate action(s) do you take in this situation?3. What liability do you now have as an employee of the college?4. Who must be notified first?

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