The 4-ORMAL Response & Reflection is a method for assimilating and synthesizing your text through responding to readings, lectures, and classroom/cohort experiences that require the student to synthesize the leadership theory on many different levels. You will write two 4-ORMALs for the Kouzes & Posner text. Covering chapters 1-6 of K&P, you will write your paper using each of the four sections below: Summary: Summarize the assigned book chapters concisely in 800 words total (not 800 words per chapter). Demonstrate that you fully understand the reading by providing a clear and straightforward summary. The summary is not a commentary or listing of topics, but rather an abbreviated synopsis of the book. Cite the book in your papers (at least one per paragraph) and include page numbers for direct quotations. Concrete Responses: In at least 350 words, write about a personal leadership episode, experience that the content of the chapters triggered in your memory. Relate your story in first person, describing action and quoting exact words you remember hearing or saying. You will remember almost nothing you have read unless you make this critical, personal connection. Reflection: What new questions about leadership arise as a consequence of reviewing the text. Challenge the author by asking better questions than he/she did. Begin with questions like, “What troubles me about this book?” Discuss the positives and negatives about the book. Limit this section to 350 words. Action: What are you going to do about it? Develop action steps based on core points of the book. This section must be a description of how main ideas will affect your understanding of leadership and your own leadership development. Provide what professional changes you will implement. Be precise in summarizing your action steps. Limit these comments to 200 words. The paper must adhere to APA standards. You are also required to create a References page on which you provide the complete reference citation for book in compliance with current APA standards. Please note: Your grades on the 4-ORMAL Reviews depend on the manner in which you address each of these four dimensions in response to your readings. Each review must be double-spaced and adhere to the lengths as noted above (not including the title page and References page). Use quotes strategically and sparingly.
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