(3.32UN-PT2)Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are often described in two ways: (1) They are chemically opposite; and (2) They have a relationship to each other. Explain what these two statements mean. Be sure to include the specific substances used and released by each process.Answer:Human skin is constantly producing new cells through cell division. How does this happen? During interphase, how does a cell prepare for division? Describe cell division, including the processes of mitosis and cytokinesis. Be sure to describe the mitotic steps.Answer:Mitosis and meiosis are similar processes, but they have some very important differences. Explain how mitosis and meiosis are alike and how they are different. Provide at least two similarities and three differences.Answer: Elephant seals from Antarctica dive into the ocean more than 1,500 meters deep at a time—nearly a mile. A seal can stay underwater for an hour or longer. To do that, the seal stores oxygen in its blood cells that is slowly released as it dives. The seal does not expend any extra energy releasing the oxygen stored in its blood cells. Do you think passive or active transport is at work in the blood cells of the elephant seal? Explain your answer.Answer:(4.11UNT-PT2)Discuss how crossing-over leads to greater variability of phenotypes. Give an example to help explain your answer.Answer:Assume you are performing a cross between a plant that is heterozygous for the dominant traits red flowers and wrinkled seeds, with a plant that is homozygous for the recessive traits white flowers and smooth seeds. Assume the alleles are R for red flowers, r for white flowers, W for wrinkled seeds, and w for smooth seeds. The offspring of this cross show the following phenotypes:43 red flowers and wrinkled seeds7 red flowers and smooth seeds9 white flowers and wrinkled seeds 41 white flowers and smooth seedsWhat are the traits of the recombinant offspring in terms of flower color and seed shape? Explain how you know that these offspring are recombinant. What alleles would you expect to see in the individual chromosomes of each parent before and after crossing-over takes place? What is the recombination frequency? What is the distance between the genes in map units?Hint: To calculate the recombination frequency, or the percentage of recombinants in the population, use this equation: total number of recombinant offspring total number offspring = recombinant frequency. Then use that number to calculate the distance in map units between the genes. Use this equation: distance = recombination frequency 100.Answer:What differences would you expect to see in a population made up of individuals whose chromosomes experience crossing-over frequently compared with a population made up of individuals whose chromosomes do not cross over? Explain your reasoning.Answer:Mendel’s law of independent assortment says that the inheritance of one trait is not influenced by inheritance of another trait. Using what you know about meiosis, explain how you can observe the law of independent assortment in action.Answer:(5.12UNT-PT2)One of the central themes in biology is how DNA, RNA, and proteins are related. Describe how genetic information flows between those types of molecules. Include the results of the processes of transcription and translation.Answer:DNA remains in the nucleus. mRNA can travel in and out of the nucleus. Explain how the function of DNA and mRNA differs.Answer:When scientists refer to the DNA to RNA to proteins pathway, the RNA part really represents three different types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). How is each type of RNA important to protein production?Answer:Would a mutation in a red blood cell be passed on to offspring? Explain your answer.Answer:
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