Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

GEOL 3302 (SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY)EXAM I (SPRING 2020)Discuss each of the following questions as an essay. Each essay should have 400 words, minimum. There is no maximum, but please don’t waste space with empty filler (e.g. “The way water moves sediment around is fascinating, which I really learned to appreciate taking this course.”). Use complete sentences and check your spelling. Do not quote text from your textbook! Turnitin will treat quoted text as plagiarism. Combine all three essays as a single Word document.1. Discuss the factors that influence soil formation. Start by explaining how different soil horizons form, and how the solubility of different ions influences their concentrations in different horizons. Explain how sedimentation rate influences soil development. Also give examples of at least two different types of paleosols, explaining how differences in precipitation and sedimentation rates might explain the differences between them.2. Discuss the influence of flow velocity on clastic sedimentation. Start by explaining very simply how changes in flow velocity influence the size of sediment being deposited, as well as how flow velocity influences how sediment is transported (related to the Reynolds number). Then discuss the influence of flow velocity of flow regime (related to the Froude number), and why different sedimentary structures form in lower and upper flow regimes. Mention why antidunes are rarely preserved in sedimentary rocks.3. Discuss controls on carbonate geochemistry and diagenesis. Explain how changing water chemistry controls the type of carbonate that is formed, either as primary sediment, or through diagenesis. Explain how water depth and water temperature impact carbonate deposition, being clear on why (explain chemically what is happening). Also discuss the influence of Mg2+ concentration on carbonate formation, specifically how less seafloor volcanic activity, more seafloor volcanic activity, and evaporation in coastal settings can influence the formation of low-Mg calcite, high-Mg calcite, and dolomite.

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